วันจันทร์ที่ 10 มีนาคม พ.ศ. 2557


World’s Biggest Arms Importer, India Wants to Buy Local 

NEW DELHI — Of the 30 countries that attended a defense exposition last month to sell weapons to India, the world’s largest arms importer, only the Russians had the chutzpah to dress up their tanks and guns with women in tightfitting camouflage.

The confident and sexy display reflected Russia’s longtime position as India’s dominant military provider, but decades of effort by India to make its own hardware may finally be bearing fruit. India recently rolled out its own fighter jet, a tank, a mobile howitzer and a host of locally made ships.

If India succeeds, the Russians could be in trouble. Russia has nearly $39 billion worth of military equipment on order by India, representing nearly a third of Russia’s total arms exports.

India’s defense minister, A. K. Antony, said at a news conference during the exposition that the country’s reliance on foreign arms makers must end. “A growing India still depending on foreign companies for a substantial part of our defense needs is not a happy situation,” he said.
Whether India can break its import addiction is anyone’s guess, but many arms analysts are skeptical. India is expected to spend about $11 billion this year buying weapons from abroad, despite decades of effort by the government to create a domestic military manufacturing sector.

“I don’t think there’s another country in the world that has tried as hard as India to make weapons and failed as thoroughly,” said Pieter D. Wezeman, a senior researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, which studies global security.

Mr. Wezeman said he was skeptical that India’s new products would change that history, saying that its fighters, tanks and guns were “of questionable quality.”

India ranks eighth in the world in military spending. Among the top 10 weapons buyers, only Saudi Arabia has a less productive homegrown military industry. China, by contrast, has been so effective that it is beginning to export higher-technology arms.

India’s main problem as an arms manufacturer is a corrupt and inefficient government sector that has neither the expertise to develop top-notch weapons nor the wherewithal to make them in abundance, said Manoj Joshi, a fellow at the Observer Research Foundation, a policy group based in New Delhi.

In one telling example, India could buy fully assembled Russian Sukhoi fighters for about $55 million each, but instead mostly relies on kits that are sent to the government-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, which assembles them at a cost of about $68 million each — nearly a quarter more. In another example, government labs spent billions trying to develop an aircraft engine, only to abandon the effort and buy engines from General Electric for the recently introduced fighter, the Tejas.

“While it’s more complicated assembling Sukhois than putting together an Ikea flat-pack, it’s not that hard,” said Samuel Perlo-Freeman, a program director at the Stockholm institute. “And it’s far from an independent and autonomous development of a new weapons system.”
India has tried to encourage private companies to make arms in India, both in partnerships to the government and independently, but few of these efforts have succeeded. Most of India’s homegrown arms are developed in 50 government labs and built at eight large government manufacturing facilities and 40 government ordnance factories.

Companies have mostly been unwilling to work with the government, and the government has not allowed foreign makers to own more than 26 percent of any Indian factory. It has agreed to raise that limit to 49 percent, but no company has applied for the exception.

Mr. Antony dismissed criticisms of the government’s chokehold on arms production. “Indian scientists and Indian industry are more efficient, and the government will have to support them,” he said.

But Mr. Joshi said India’s government needed to get out of manufacturing. “Our defense industrial base is hopelessly out of date,” he said. “It needs to be dismantled and handed over to the private sector.”


ถึงแม้ว่าอินเดียจะเป็นประเทศผู้นำเข้าอาวุธมากที่สุดในโลกแล้วก็ตาม แต่อินเดียมีนโยบายที่จะจัดหาอาวุธที่สร้างเองในประเทศมากขึ้น
จากการวิเคราะห์ของ New York Times ผู้ที่ได้รับผลกระทบโดยตรงคือรัสเซียซึ่งเดิมเป็นผู้ส่งออกอาวุธรายหลักของอินเดียมาตลอด
โครงการจัดหาอาวุธจากรัสเซียของอินเดียที่มีอยู่ในขณะนี้ที่เป็นโครงการใหญ่ก็เช่นโครงการเครื่องบินขับไล่ยุคที่5 FGFA ที่พัฒนาจาก PAK FA Sukhoi T-50

เช่นการที่ต้องใช้งบประมาณในการวิจัยพัฒนามากขึ้นแต่กลับได้ผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ดีนัก ทั้งความล่าช้าในการพัฒนาหลายโครงการ และ Technology บางส่วนที่ยังตามชาติมหาอำนาจไม่ทัน
(น่าจะเป็น INS Aridhaman เรือดำน้ำนิวเคลียร์ติดขีปนาวุธทางยุทธศาสตร์ชั้น Arihant ลำที่2 ที่ต่อที่ Visakhapatnam
กองทัพเรืออินเดียเกิดอุบัติเหตุเกี่ยวกับเรือดำน้ำบ่อยมากในช่วงไม่กี่ปีหลังมานี้ อย่างเรือดำน้ำแบบ Kilo ชั้น Sindhughosh ได้รับการปรับปรุงแล้วคือ
S63 INS Sindhurakshak, S55 INS Sindhughosh และ S59 INS Sindhuratna ซึ่งมีผู้เสียชีวิตโดยรวมจำนวนหนึ่ง)